"The gilding of the Indian summer mellowed the pastures far and wide.
The russet woods stood ripe to be stripped, but were yet full of leaf.
The purple of heath-bloom, faded but not withered, tinged the hills...
Fieldhead gardens bore the seal of gentle decay;...
its time of flowers and even of fruit was over."
Shine on, Harvest Moon: Strange facts about tonight's full moon
Elizabeth Howell, Space.com
The Harvest Moon is the full moon that falls closest to the autumnal equinox, which marks the beginning of fall in the Northern Hemisphere. This year, the equinox falls on Sunday, and the moon reaches its full phase in North America overnight from Wednesday to Thursday.
This full moon is called the Harvest Moon because many fruits and vegetables tend to ripen in the late summer and early fall in the Northern Hemisphere. In the days before electricity, farmers relied heavily on this moon's light, working late into the evening to harvest their crops.
As it rises for several nights in a row at or near sunset, the moon will appear larger to observers near the horizon than it does high in the sky — a much-discussed phenomenon that is sometimes called "the moon illusion." Our minds and eyes, used to seeing distant clouds on the horizon and closer ones a few miles overhead, tend to perceive objects on the horizon are much farther away than objects higher in the sky that have the same angular size. Since the moon is actually not farther away on the horizon, we may think that it appears larger — even though its angular size is the same.
This trick of the mind is true for the moon all year round, but it's particularly pronounced with the Harvest Moon, because this full moon's path around Earth creates a particularly narrow angle with the horizon. As a result, the moon rises only 30 minutes later every day around the fall equinox, far below the average of 50 minutes.
Sometimes the moon turns orange, just like a fall pumpkin, because of clouds and dust in the atmosphere close to the horizon. So the Harvest Moon may hang low and large on the horizon, like a colorful lantern.
Photo courtesy of Wikipedia.org